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图ang拉马努金公式erAnger-【xinwen】

发布时间:2021-10-12 10:25:08 阅读: 来源:生物质颗粒机厂家

JOURNALOFRESEARCHONADOLESCENCE,22(1),

DOI:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00756.x

anger Anger

BICULTURALADOLESCENTS’ANGERCOMMUNICATION81

withtheculturalmodelthatstressesattainmentandmaintenanceofgroupmembership,especiallywhenhonorisnotthesubjectofthecon?ict.Consequently,directangercommunicationmightbelessdesirablebecauseitmightbeperceivedasdisrespectfulandmightre?ectanegativeimageuponone’sfamily.

Moroccan-Dutchadolescentsformanintriguing

groupinthisrespect,astheyembodycharacteris-ticsoftheindividualisticDutchaswellasthecol-lectivisticMoroccanculture.Speci?cally,theyaresocializedaccordingtonorms,values,andgoalsoftheparentalcultureathome,whereasteachers,peers,andmediateachthemhowtobehaveaccordingtotheexpectationsofthedominantcul-ture.Possibly,thesedistinctin?uencescanbecon-fusingtoyoungstersandmightresultinacting-outbehaviorsoutsidethehome(Stevensetal.,2003).Conversely,basedonthecollectivisticculturalmodel,onewouldexpectMoroccan-Dutchadoles-centstoavoidgettinginvolvedinheatedinterper-sonalcon?ictsituations,whichcouldthreatentheirgroupmembershipandhavenegativeimpactontheirsocialreputationandhonor.Consequently,Moroccan-Dutchadolescentsmaybemorelikelytoexpresstheirangerinanonaggressive,directandevenindirectmanner.

Inaninitialstudy,NovinandRieffe(2009)

comparedMoroccan-DutchandDutchmiddleschoolchildren’sspontaneousreactionstohypo-theticalpeer-con?ictsituations.ConsistentwithDutchandMoroccanculturalmodels,Moroccan-Dutchprimaryschoolchildrenwerelesslikelytoreportdemandingandaggressivereactionstopro-tecttheirpersonalneedsthantheirDutchpeerswere.Theamountofreportedneutralandasser-tiveordirectresponseswasequalbetweenthegroups.Althoughthese?ndingsprovideinitialinsightinbiculturalchildren’sangercommunica-tion,twoimportantissuesarestillleftunad-dressed.

First,the?ndingsofNovinandRieffe(2009)

failedtoaddresshowdifferencesbetweentheMoroccan-DutchandDutchchildrencanbeunder-stoodintermsofculture:doMoroccan-Dutchchil-dren’sresponsestylescorrespondwitha”Moroccanway”ora“Dutchway”ofresponding,ordotheirresponsepatternsdifferfrombothcul-turalgroups,leavingtheminan”inbetween-cultures“position?Toexaminetheculturalpositionofbiculturaladolescents’angercommuni-cation,itisessentialtocomparetheirresponsestoanger-evokingvignettesnotonlytoresponsesbypeersfromthedominantculture,asdidNovinandRieffeintheirstudy,butalsotoresponsesbypeersfromtheparentalculture.Second,byfocusingonlyonmiddleschoolchil-dren,itisunclearwhetherthesedifferencesholdwhenchildrenreachadolescence.Fromadevelop-mentalperspective,childrenandadolescentsarelikelytodifferintheirangerregulationandcom-munication.Duringadolescence,increasesinnega-tiveaffectsbecomeprevalent(Larson&Sheeber,2008)andadequateregulationofnegativeemotionsiscriticalduetophysiological,psychological,andsocialchanges(Furman&Buhrmester,1992;Silk,Steinberg,&Morris,2003).ForbiculturalMoroc-can-Dutchadolescents,thistransitionphasemayalsomeanthattheyareincreasinglyin?uencedbytheDutchcultureingeneral,whichmightresultinMoroccan-Dutchadolescents’angercommunicationpatternssimilartothoseoftheirDutchpeersasopposedtothevaryingpatternsbetweenMoroc-can-DutchandDutchchildren.Toattendtothesetwopoints,weextendedthestudyofNovinandRieffebycomparingMoroccan-Dutch16-year-oldswiththeirDutchandtheirMoroccanpeers.ThePresentStudyOurinterestintheculturalpositionofMoroccan-Dutchadolescents’angerregulationstrategieswasbasedonaninitialpredictionthattheMoroccanandDutchgroupsvaryintheirself-reportedangercommunicationstylestohypotheticalcon?ictsitua-tions.Giventheculturaldescriptionsdescribedabove,weexpectedthatMoroccanadolescentswouldbemorelikelytoreportavoidingthesitua-tion(neutralstyle)ortoexpresstheirangersubtly(indirectstyle)comparedtotheirDutchpeers.ComparedtotheirMoroccanpeers,Dutchadoles-centsaremorelikelytoreporttoexplicitlyexpresstheirdislikes(directexpression)orevenmoreaggressively,becauseexpressingone’struefeelingsintermsofhonestyandexpressingpersonaldesiresaremorecongruentwiththetypicalDutchculturethanwiththetypicalMoroccanculture.ExpectationsaboutdifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweenthebiculturalgroupandtheMoroccanandDutchgroupsarelessstraightforward,becausenopreviousstudiesexistwiththisdesign.Similari-tieswiththeMoroccangroupcanbeexpected,especiallyintermsoffewernoti?cationsofaggres-siveexpressionsthantheDutchgroup,whichisconsistentwiththeoutcomesofNovinandRieffe’sstudy(2009).Alternatively,Moroccan-Dutchado-lescents’angercommunicationstylesmayshowmoresimilaritieswiththeDutchthanwiththe

anger Anger

82NOVINANDRIEFFE

Moroccangroup,duetoincreasingDutchin?u-encesinMoroccan-Dutchadolescents’lives.

Finally,withrespecttogender,itwasexpectedthatindependentofculturalgroup,boyswouldreportaggressiveexpressionstylesmoreoftenthangirls,whereasgirlswouldreportneutralorindirectangerexpressionstylesmoreoften(e.g.,Cheng,Mallinckrodt,&Wu,2005;Zahn-Waxler,2010).

METHOD

Participants

Thesampleconsistedof40Moroccan-Dutch,40Dutch,and38Moroccanadolescents.Alladoles-centsparticipatedinanextensiveprojectthatexaminedemotionalfunctioningofadolescentsintheNetherlandsandMorocco.TheMoroccan-DutchandtheDutchadolescentslivedintheNeth-erlandsatthetimeofthestudyandwererecruitedfromschoolsinoneofthethreelargestcitiesoftheNetherlands(Amsterdam,DenHaag,Rotterdam).TheadolescentsintheMoroccan-Dutchgroup(35%boys;meanage15yearsand4months;SD=7months)hadatleastoneparentwhowasborninMorocco(90%oftheadolescents’parentswerebothborninMorocco).Theadolescentsthem-selveswereallbornintheNetherlandsorhadimmigratedbeforetheir?rstbirthday.Theadoles-centsintheDutchgroup(48%boys;meanage16yearsand1month,SD=4months)andboththeirparentswerebornintheNetherlands.Theothermonoculturalgroupconsistedof38nativeMoroccanadolescents(50%boys;meanage=16yearsand7months,SD=6months)wholivedandattendedaschoolinTetouan,acityinNorth-ernMorocco.TetouanisoneofthecitiesintheRifareawheretheMoroccan-Dutchpopulationhasitsorigin(Benali&Obdeijn,2005).AllMoroccanado-lescents,aswellasboththeirparents,wereborninMorocco.Overall,theMoroccan-DutchgroupwasyoungerthantheDutchandtheMoroccangroups,F(2,117)=66.29,p<.001,??2p?:54.

扩展:anger和angry / angel / anger电影

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